Battle Of Plassey Orrisa PCS Exam Notes

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In any case, the French commander, St Frais, refused to retreat and continued to fight from the large tank, although the soldiers of the now deceased Mir Madan Khan joined the withdrawal to the camp. Siraj-ud-Daulah then spoke to his other two commanders. Raja Durlabh Ram urged Siraj-ud-Daulah to order his army to return to the camp and leave the camp himself.

The lots dated from as far back as the Jomon period (c.10,000-c.300BC) right up to the Heisei era (1989-present), showcasing more than two millennia of Japanese culture. For its annual Jewellery in June campaign, Bonhams is inviting people to bring in their jewellery for free auction valuations in a bid to unearth new treasures. The auction house’s 20 jewellery experts and gemmologists can advise on prices, vintage and even care. The Kate Middleton factor – teaming pearls with high-fashion outfits to create a stunning modern classic look – means pearls suddenly have an important new cachet. The Duchess looked stunning in a set of simple pearl drop earrings visiting Christchurch last month.

The numbers in this crescent line were 45,000 infantry and cavalry with numerous guns. Clive’s force was effectively surrounded and pinned against the river. His survival and success depended upon the treachery of Mir Jafar Khan and the other Indian commanders.

Interestingly, occasional explosions of ammunition amongst Siraj’s artillery wing were heard. Moreover, casualties went down considerably for EIC since they took positions behind the embankments. Seven of them were against immediate military action and only two were in favour. So, total seven officers were in favour of taking on Siraj at Plassey, whereas the majority wanted to back out.

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By the middle of December 1756, one of the ships Kent, anchored at Fulta in Bengal – where the English survivors of SirajudDaula’s attack on Fort William in Calcutta in June 1756 – had taken shelter. In fact, by then, almost 50 per cent of the original survivorshad died of fever. The Charter was signed on 31 December 1600 whereupon it was emphasised that the Company was to restrict itself to trade and not to attempt colonisation or conquest. William Hawkins captained the ship HECTOR and reached India at the largest of the Mughal ports – Surat. As Hawkins anchored offshore on 24 August 1608, began an era of British mercantilism in India which later transformed into capitalistic imperialism.

A fine and very rare celadon-glazed bowl , Yongzheng six-character mark within double circles and of the period

About 4 am on the 5th of February 1757, Clive and his troops were marching towards Siraj’s camp at the outskirts of north Calcutta.Clive’s men reached the centre of Siraj’s camp after a brief resistance by the latter’s forces. By 11 am on that day, Clive after having lost about 150 soldiers returned to Fort William a despondent man.Since there was thick fog on that day Clive’s forces were unsure of hitting their target. Vintage watches from the workshops of the renowned manufacturer Panerai were well represented in the sale. Today, Sotheby’s Geneva established a world auction record for a Panerai watch when it sold a stainless steel military diver’s wristwatch with prototype bezel, reference 6152/1, Luminor, circa 1955 for CHF 425,000 ($478,002) (lot 298, est. CHF 180, ,000 / $205, ,000).

5, Tokyo, 1982, no. 226; another in the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities, Stockholm, op. cit., Kodansha Series, vol. II, Hong Kong, 1987, p. 146, no. 104; and another illustrated by A. Du Boulay,Christie’s Pictorial History, London, 1984, p. 242, no. 3. Compare also to an opaque orange glass vase of similar size and shape, formerly in the Shorenstein Collection, sold at Christie’s Hong Kong, December 2010, lot 2925. Works on paper by Italian artist and composer Giacomo Balla range from Compenetrazione Bis, 1913, (est. $25,000+) to Study for the Line of Velocity No. 2 (double-sided), circa 1913 (est. $7,000+). The panoramic array of items sold included a wealth of Arts and Crafts, netsuke andinro; armour; woodblock prints, featuring a selection of erotic ‘shunga’ subjects; painted folding screens; sculpture in ivory and metal; lacquered works; and ceramics.

  • The top lot in the sale was a pair of fine and rare early-19th-century sword covers with metal fittings , which were estimated to sell for £35,000 to £45,000 but went to a telephone bidder for £75,500.
  • The French, under St Frais, fired the first gun, which acted as a signal for the opening of a heavy bombardment all along the line of Siraj-ud-Daulah’s army.
  • It was a normal monsoon day, with occasional rain in the mango groves at the town of Plassey…… It was in those mango groves that the British forces faced the Nawab Siraj-ud-Doula’s army and convincingly defeated it.
  • With Siraj leading his forces by example would have surely emboldened the spirits of his soldiers.
  • At 6 am on 22nd June 1757, the army crossed the Bhagirathi River to the east bank, using the accompanying flotilla of boats which carried the supplies.

British interference in the Nawab’s court, and particularly their support for one of his aunts, Ghaseti Begum. The son of Ghaseti’s treasurer had sought refuge in Fort William and Siraj demanded his return. TheBattle of Plassey was a battle that took place on June 23, 1757, on the banks of the Bhagirathi River, about 150 km north of Calcutta. It is near Murshidabad, then the capital of the Nawab of Bengal in India. Pâlāshir, an extravagant red flowering tree known as “Flame of the forest,” gives its name to a small village near the battlefield. A phonetically accurate romanizing of the Bengali name would be Battle of Palashi, but the spelling “Plassey” is now conventional.

Plassey: Beginning of an Empire?

The interesting aspect here is not why Mir Jafar and others conspired against Siraj, who was by no means a worthy candidate for being the Subahdar of Mughal Bengal, but why they sought the help of Clive to dislodge Siraj– an act which they could have done themselves. Probably, they were quite awestruck at the limefx military prowess of the EIC and the leadership ability of Clive that they were unsure if they attacked Siraj, then EIC might come to his rescue invoking the Treaty of Alinagar. They were perhaps circumspect of the reaction of the Bengal nobility close to Alivardi if Siraj was displaced in a coup led by them.

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Coote urged that a delay would enable Monsieur Law to join Siraj-ud-Daulah from Bhagalpur with his French troops, known to have been urgently summoned by Siraj-ud-Daulah. The presence of Monsieur Law’s force in the opposing army, in addition to strengthening it significantly, was likely to cause the many Frenchmen serving in the East India Company army to desert to their own side. If he did not, the likelihood was that Clive’s army would be overwhelmed in a battle. Growing on the sidelines was the French influence, at the urging of the enterprising French Governor-General Joseph François Dupleix, at the court of the Nawab. This was resulting in increasing French trade in Bengal.

A fine and very rare Imperial yellow glass censer Qianlong incised four-character mark within double squares and of the period

From this base, the Company set about extending effective rule over the whole of the Indian Sub-Continent. The service is quite intuitive to use and user-friendly. Thank you Admiral Markets i look forward to having a long and fruitful association with this trading company.

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But it was not the first time Kate has modelled pearls, and her patronage is introducing them to a new generation. The spring auction season opened last week with impressionist and modern art. “Black Fire I” sparked a contentious bidding war between two telephone bidders, ending with enterprise technology consulting a standing ovation as the hammer fell with a price of $84.165 million, far exceeding the estimated value of $50 million. The three traitorous generals then started retreating from the battlefield. Such a sight created confusion amongst the remaining rank and file of Siraj’s forces.

Naturally, markets of Alexandria and Cairo became more important for the Europeans. Since Arabs were in control of the sea trade to India’s Malabar region, they siphoned off the profits and price of spices inflated as they finally reached Europe. No forts to be erected by the Nawab’s government on the river side, from Hooghley downwards. Following the Battle of Plassey, in accordance with the treaty he had signed with Clive and the East India Company Committee in Calcutta, Mir Jafa Khan entered Murshidabad with Clive and became Nawab of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa.

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Amongst the junior ranks, Eyre Coote was most vocal as he reasoned that any delay might dampen the spirits of the soldiers since they had already captured the Fort of Katwa, and consequently should move on. Coote was of the opinion that they were on a victorious spree from the Battle of Budge Budge onwards and hence ought to continue their journey. Clive however was not satisfied with Jafar’s commitment, which appeared to him to be equivocal. Hence, he wrote a letter requesting support from Raja of Bardhaman – Tilak Chand.

However, the world record for the highest price fetched at auction for a work of art remains with Bacon, whose triptych, “Three Studies of Lucian Freud,” was sold last year by Christie’s for $142.4 million. Barnett’s black and white piece topped the $80.805 million raked in for Francis Bacon’s “Three Studies for a Portrait of John Edwards,” a collection of three canvases painted in 1984. With Siraj leading his forces by example would have surely emboldened the spirits of his soldiers. And with St Frais and Mohanlal still fighting, though of low probability, yet there was a possibility of Sirajturning the tables against Clive. If Jafar and his men would have fought, there was a high chance that they could have outnumbered Clive’s forces, howsoever efficient and trained they were. Large casualties could have been expected from the field gun firing of the EIC, yet overall the march of infantry of around 35,000 appears to be a ‘mowing down’ of around 3000 soldiers with only 2 field guns.

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On 12th June 1757 the remaining troops at Calcutta with 150 sailors from Admiral Watson’s squadron marched to join Clive’s force at Chandranagar. Clive now had 950 European Troops (including 250 men from His Majesty’s 39th Foot), 2,100 sepoys, 100 artillerymen, 60 sailors and eight 6 pounder guns and 2 howitzers. Qianlong-marked glass vases of similar shape and colour are also known, including one in the Beijing Palace Museum, illustrated inLuster of Autumn Water. Glass of the Qing Imperial Workshops, Beijing, 2005, pl. 21; one sold at Christie’s Hong Kong, June 2011, lot 3802; and one sold at Christie’s Hong Kong, April 1992, lot 971.

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Mohan Lal and St Fraishowever continued the fight, but it was already a lost battle. Nauwe Singh Hazari- captain of artillery – also lost his life. Siraj was unnerved, for the second time in his brief period of showdown with the EIC.

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